Connally Academic Services


Levels of Service


Light Editing

Light editing corrects spelling errors and typos, grammar mistakes, punctuation, and word choice and usage.  At this level of service I also check for consistency of stylistic elements like pronoun point of view, verb tense, and level of formality.

Medium Editing

Medium editing includes everything in light editing, but adds rephrasing or rewriting of awkward or unclear sentences, replacement of jargon, insertion of transitional words and phrases, as well as paring down of sentences for concision.

Heavy (or Substantive) Editing

Heavy or substantive editing includes everything in medium editing, but adds reorganization of text and restructuring of paragraphs and sections to achieve logical coherence, and pays attention to the balance of ethos, pathos, and logos.  This level of editing will usually be accompanied by suggestions for rhetorical, stylistic, and logical strengthening.


Formatting amends the capitalization, alphabetization, punctuation, italicization, abbreviation, indentation, and layout of research citations or footnotes, tables, figures, and headings in the document so they conform to the assigned style sheet or journal submission guidelines.  If needed, it will also adjust margins, font type, and running heads, and lay out front matter such as Table of Contents, List of Tables, and so forth.  Formatting is performed separately from editing.